‘Tis the week to celebrate our Presidents … and their famous acts and laws that changed the face of agriculture forever! Abraham Lincoln created the United States Department of Agriculture in 1862 and 153 years later we’re still benefiting from an agency that acts with agriculture’s best interests in mind.
On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln signed into law an act of Congress establishing “at the seat of Government of the United States a Department of Agriculture.” Two and one-half years later, in what was to be his last annual message to the Congress, Lincoln said: “The Agricultural Department, under the supervision of its present energetic and faithful head, is rapidly commending itself to the great and vital interest it was created to advance. It is precisely the people’s Department, in which they feel more directly concerned that in any other. I commend it to the continued attention and fostering care of Congress.”
Lincoln’s own background was the pioneer farming and rural life typical of the outer edge of America’s westward-moving frontier.
His early years were spent on farms characterized by pioneer exploitation rather than by settled cultivation. The 300-acre tract in central Kentucky on which his log-hut birthplace stood was too poor to be called a farm. As a boy, he lived on a 30-acre farm. Because of hills and gullies only 14 acres could be cultivated.
In 1816, the Lincoln family moved to southern Indiana to 160 acres of marshy land. After 7 years, Lincoln’s father had 10 acres of corn, 5 of wheat, and 2 of oats in cultivation. The young boy was hired out to do general farm work, to split rails, and to work on a ferry boat. In 1830, the family moved to land along the Sangamon River in Illinois. Soon afterward, Lincoln left the family and began life for himself.
This farm background, on what was then the western frontier, and his years as a country lawyer made Lincoln, during the 1850’s, a representative of the frontier, the farmer, and small town democracy.
On September 30, 1859, Lincoln addressed the Wisconsin State Agricultural Society at its annual fair in Milwaukee. This was the only extended discussion of agriculture he ever made. He began by praising agricultural fairs as a means of bringing people together. However, the main purpose of the fair was to aid in improving agriculture.
Lincoln spoke of the desirability of substituting horse-drawn machines for hand power, and the potential usefulness of steam plows. He urged more intensive cultivation in order to increase production to the full capacity of the soil. This would require the better use of available labor. Lincoln contrasted “mud sill” and free labor, identifying “mud sill” laborers as slaves or hired laborers who were fixed in that situation. Free laborers, who had the opportunity to become landowners, were more productive than the “mud sill” workers.
Free labor could achieve its highest potential if workers were educated. As Lincoln put it: “…no other human occupation opens so wide a field for the profitable and agreeable combination of labor with cultivated thought, as agriculture.”
His endorsement of education and his belief that farmers’ interests were of primary importance indicated Lincoln’s interest in agricultural reform. After saying that farmers were neither better nor worse than other people, Lincoln continued: “But farmers, being the most numerous class, it follows that their interest is the largest interest. It also follows that that interest is most worthy of all to be cherished and cultivated — that if there be inevitable conflict between that interest and any other, that other should yield.”
When the Republican Party nominated Lincoln in 1860, two of the planks in the party platform were in accordance with ideas that had been advocated by westerners for many years. The first was the demand for a homestead measure. The second was advocacy of Federal aid for construction of a railroad to the Pacific Ocean. Two other proposals which had been advocated for many years — grants of Federal land for founding of colleges to teach agriculture and engineering and the establishment of a federal Department of Agriculture — were not mentioned in the platform. However, all four of the proposals were enacted into law in 1862.
The first of the measures to become law established the Department of Agriculture. In his first annual message to Congress on December 3, 1861, Lincoln said: “Agriculture, confessedly the largest interest of the nation, has not a department nor a bureau, but a clerkship only, assigned to it in the Government. While it is fortunate that this great interest is so independent in its nature as to not have demanded and extorted more from the Government, I respectfully ask Congress to consider whether something more can not be given voluntarily with general advantage…. While I make no suggestions as to details, I venture the opinion that an agricultural and statistical bureau might profitably be organized.” Instead of a bureau, Congress established a Department to be headed by a Commissioner. The act was so broadly conceived that it has remained the basic authority for the Department to the present time.
The Homestead Act, approved by the President on May 20, 1862, provided for giving 160 acres of the public domain to any American or prospective citizen who was the head of a family or over 21 years of age. Title to the land was issued after the settler had resided on it for five years and made improvements on it. The settler could also gain title by residing on the claim for six months, improving the land, and paying $1.25 per acre. The Homestead Act did not achieve all that its proponents had hoped, but it stood as a symbol of American democracy and opportunity to native-born and immigrant alike.
The act granting western land and making payments for the construction of the Union Pacific-Central Pacific railroad was signed by Lincoln on July 1, 1862. The two sections of the railroad joined at Promontory Summit, thirty-two miles west of Brigham City, Utah, on May 10, 1869. This completed a rail connection between the Atlantic and the Pacific and opened new areas of the West to settlement.
The Morrill Land Grant College Act, donating public land to the States for colleges of agriculture and the mechanical arts, became law on July 2, 1862. Every State accepted the terms of the act and established one or more such institutions.
After President Lincoln signed the bill establishing the Department of Agriculture on May 15, 1862, he received much unsolicited advice, particularly in the columns of the farm press, on the appointment of the first Commissioner of Agriculture. Some urged the appointment of a distinguished scientist, others an outstanding “practical” man. A few periodical editors were certain that one of their number would be the best choice. However, Lincoln turned to Isaac Newton, a farmer who had served as chief of the agricultural section of the Patent Office since August 1861.
Newton was born in Burlington County, New Jersey. He grew up on a farm, and after completing his common-school education, became a farmer in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia. Newton was a successful, progressive manager, whose farms were regarded as models. He also developed a pioneer dairy lunch in Philadelphia and a select butter trade as outlets for his farm products. Newton sent butter each week to the White House; and he and his family maintained a close friendship with the Lincolns. Subsequently, Lincoln gave him full support in managing the Department.
In his first annual report, Newton outlined objectives for the Department. These were: (1) Collecting, arranging, and publishing statistical and other useful agricultural information; (2) Introducing valuable plants and animals; (3) Answering inquiries of farmers regarding agriculture; (4) Testing agricultural implements; (5) Conducting chemical analyses of soils, grains, fruits, plants, vegetables, and manures; (6) Establishing a professorship of botany and entomology; and (7) Establishing an agricultural library and museum. These objectives were similar to the charges given the Department by the Congress in its legislation establishing the new agency.
Newton, during the nearly five years he served as Commissioner, made progress in achieving these objectives. The basis for a library existed in the book and journal collection of the Agricultural Division of the Patent Office. This collection, comprising about 1,000 volumes, was transferred to the new Department. Appropriations for library material began in 1864. The first librarian of record was Aaron Burt Grosh, a clergyman. Little is known of his library work. He is best remembered as one of the founders of the National Grange.
Although Lincoln’s primary problem during his Presidency was preserving the Union, the agricultural legislation that he signed was to transform American farming.
By Wayne D. Rasmussen
Chief, Agricultural History Branch (retired 1986)
United States Department of Agriculture
When many of us encounter someone who lives on a farm, the first question that tends to pop into our minds is, “What kind of animals do you have?” To the surprise of many, not all farms raise livestock. Not every farmer is comparable to Old McDonald.
Let’s dive into history for a minute and take a look at farms existing about 100 years ago: the year 1918. Many more farms existed because each operator had less land to tend and care for. Because of this, more farms had livestock and were able to be more diversified. However, fast forward to present day, in order for farms to be successful, farmers must pick and choose specialties to focus on for their operation. For example, when students select what major they would like to pursue at a college or university, they likely combine their interests and career goals to choose a career path. By combining interests with job outlook in a certain career area, students are essentially specializing their education to best fit their desired job. Farmers have a similar process; they select one or two specialties for the sake of best-combining resources to meet production needs.
So what kinds of farms do we have here in Illinois? I’m glad you asked. According to the National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS), a farm is classified as an operation that makes $1,000+ each year. Taking this classification into account, in 2016 Illinois reported having 72,200 farming operations. Illinois had 11.6 million acres of planted in 2016. That’s more than any other commodity grown in our state. The runner-up to corn was soybeans, coming in at 10.1 million acres planted. Those two grains were on more farms than all other commodities combined.
Now, just because many of our operations have grain does not mean no livestock exist. We had over 300,000 beef cattle (used for meat production) and over 5 million hogs as well. But aside from grain and livestock, we have some really unique farms in Illinois that stand out from the norm. For instance, Illinois had 1,200 acres of peaches, 45,000 acres of oats and 7,000 acres of potatoes planted in 2016.
This goes to show we are really diversified here in this mid-Western state. While many of us may not realize it, Illinois features a wide array of farms that bring great significance to our agriculture diversity. So the next time we bump into someone that owns or operates a farm, strike up a conversation with him or her. But before we ask more details about what the farm’s specialty is, remember: not all farms have livestock.
Illinois State University
The saying “you are what you eat” really goes a long way when you realize how much food influences your daily life. Here are some ways that food can actually be hurting us.
- Not eating more fruits and veggies because they aren’t organic.
Fruits and vegetables have an abundance of essential vitamins, minerals, plant chemicals, and fiber that are all vital to our health. While organic foods have their benefits, nonorganic foods have just as many – more consistency in taste, texture, and quality, they are cheaper, and sometimes they may even have less pesticide residue than organic fruits and veggies. Just because something is not organic does not mean it is any less nutritious, and avoiding fruits and veggies can do more harm than avoiding non-organic foods.
- Larger portions of “safe” foods do not equal good-for-you.
Just because the food you are eating is healthy, it does not mean that you can eat an unlimited amount of it! For example, fruit is extremely healthy and good for us, but a lot of it has loads of sugar. To put it into perspective, one mango has 50 grams of sugar, whereas one can of soda has 39 grams. Even the healthiest food options are best when eaten in moderation, and an extra intake of calories will end up getting stored as fat.
- Choosing Reduced fat/fat-free products
Making reduced fat and fat-free products involve adding many unhealthy ingredients and increasing other unhealthy components such as sugar and carbohydrates. In most cases, low-fat products are very high in carbs, contain trans-fats, and still have a high-calorie count. Trans-fats are very detrimental to our health, especially for our heart and cholesterol. There are many healthy fats out there, choosing the natural option may be the best way to go!
- Using Aspartame as a replacement for real sugar
Aspartame is a zero-calorie sweetener that is found in many low-calorie or zero calorie drinks. While it is a nice alternative that helps reduce your sugar intake, there are many controversies about potential ailments that may be caused by it, ranging from mild side effects such as headaches and digestive symptoms to potentially chronic illnesses such as cancer.
- Some vegan meat substitutes
Vegan and plant-based diets are extremely popular right now, and for many great reasons, but some vegan or vegetarian meat substitutes are often made in very unhealthy forms. Many substitutes have a lot of added sodium, and excessive sodium intake is often linked to high blood pressure and risk of heart disease. Also, just because it is vegan does not mean it is not deep fried, loaded with unhealthy sauces, and prepared as a junk food, such as vegan chicken nuggets or burgers.
It is our job to be aware of the reality behind the food we eat, so do your best to stay up to date with nutritional news so you can be the healthiest version of you!
University of Illinois
There are plenty of things a farmer could get his sweetie for Valentine’s Day; chocolate, stuffed animals, jewelry, books. The list of “typical” gifts goes on and on. What about channeling his resources and going that extra mile? How about a gift that will keep her warm during the months ahead? What about something that will appeal to his love of the environment and the soil? Or maybe something that would make her smile even when he isn’t there? Well, I’ve been looking around and found some great ideas that could do just that. Check out these gifts that would make a farmer’s sweetie feel like one lucky gal this Valentine’s Day!
We all know that farmers work despite the freezing temperatures we’ve been having. And being outside in anything other than a durable, warm Carhartt jacket would make any kind of work more trying. Just because Carhartt jackets are sensible doesn’t mean they can’t be cute too. They come in a variety of colors from the classic tan to pink or blue. I’m sure that a farmer’s sweetie would love that he thought about her staying warm in one of her favorite colors.
Photo credit: Costalfarm.com
Summertime can mean long, lazy days enjoying the relaxing art of fishing so maybe a farmer could help her beat his record for biggest bass with a brand new fishing rod and reel? Yes, she would have to wait until the weather warms up to use it, but she would be bound to appreciate that he planned ahead and is looking forward to making some great summertime memories with her. I have found a cute one here!
Photo credit: Fishing-tackle-manufacturers.com
Although planting a tree means waiting for the ground to thaw, she would love that it could be planted together and it is a symbol of their ever-growing love. (I found a kit for a dawn redwood here). Enhancing farmland land and being environmentally conscious are just great added benefits for the farmer. The tree could be there for years to come and every time she looked at it she would smile and think of him. (Even if she’s annoyed that he’s been late to dinner all week because he was plowing the fields).
Photo credit: Gifts.com
These letters would be great for her to have when she’s annoyed, frustrated, missing you, sad, or upset and he isn’t there to let her know how he really feels. Some ideas I had for putting on the envelopes are “Open when… you wish I’d come in for dinner at a decent time.” “Open when… yet another one of our date nights was spent in the tractor because it’s harvest season.” “Open when… you’re sick of me tracking my muddy boots through the house.” “Open when… you’re mad that I forgot your birthday because it’s right in the middle of busy season.” “Open when… you’re sick of planning vacations around cattle shows.” Opening these letters would definitely make her happy she’s got a man like him!
Photo credit: GirlCalledJulie, Twitter.com
Finding a Valentine’s Day gift for a farmers’ sweetie may not always be easy, but hopefully, these ideas would help find something meaningful and unique for a farmer’s special girl. Happy Valentine’s Day!
When I think of family I think of the agriculture industry. Just like when you say a TV show that is all about family I also think of This Is Us. Family is a very big part of agriculture and has helped shaped the direction of the industry today. There are many ways you can relate agriculture to This Is Us, because, in the end, we all face the same challenges.
It is best to roll with the punches! Randall is the one who struggles with this the most on the show. He tends to be more uptight about things, especially his family. When Kevin came to move in with Randall and his family we could all see how stressed he was with Kevin coming and not telling him. In agriculture, we have to be flexible with what is happening currently. Everyday something will change and with that, we have to be able to move right with it. Even though Randall is the brains in this family, it is not always great to be like him.
Family does not always mean blood. When a crisis occurs on the farm, it takes everyone to fix it. You can count on people you may not know at the time to become your family. Many times when a farmer has a health issue or family accident right in the middle of harvest you can count on those people who are not blood to help you. Agriculture is one big family and it always brings a smile to my face when I see how close we all become. On This Is Us, they adopt a son when their twins are born and they become the big three! Bringing a new life into their home that was not their blood but became their family. It is all about the people who are there for you when you need them the most.
Some days you wake up and just do not want to get out of bed for work. There are freezing cold days when you think “Can I spend a few more hours in bed and feed the cows later?” untimely the answer is no sadly. Farming is not an easy job to be up doing things all day but someone has to do it. There were many days when Kevin was working on the ManNY and nothing would go right. Each take wasn’t right and he just kept having everything go wrong. When bad days hit you have to make the most of them and keep going, like Kevin you can get back into your groove.
Agriculture is a family industry and just like in This Is Us you can always feel the love no matter how rough a day is.
Southern Illinois University
Just as we use many forms of transportation to reach our final destination, whether it be for work, school, or a day in the city, so does the agriculture industry. This industry relies on many forms of transportation to deliver products to reach the ultimate destination: on shelves for consumers to buy. One of these important forms is water transportation. Products such as grain, biofuels and other important agriculture commodities are shipped via the waterways. In fact, in Illinois, we export about 41% of our corn, and the main method of shipping this commodity is on barges.
So why is this important? Well, just as our vehicles require maintenance from normal wear and tear, waterways need the same treatment. These locks and dams are designed to last approximately 50 years before requiring maintenance. Factors such as extreme weather can take a huge toll on these vital routes of transportation. Without proper care, outages occur, causing barges to reroute to an open lock and dam. This extended travel is not nearly as efficient, especially when there is high traffic traveling towards the same area.
Because millions of tons travel through locks and dams each year, it is crucial to understand the importance of the waterway system. Think about the train stations in one of our popular U.S. cities. If one of those train stations was not able to operate and bring people to their destination on a regular basis, then all those passengers would have to find means of transportation elsewhere, likely another station in the city. This leads to increased crowds and potentially long wait times for trains because the flow of traffic is much higher with one less operating train station. This is essentially the issue our locks and dams are facing with the waterways. Agriculture relies heavily on all forms of transportation to carry goods, and when one or more outages occur on the waterways, it impacts agriculture exports and the economic benefits this industry provide for our country.
So how can we help fix this issue? One of the most important things we as consumers can do is stay up to date with news and data shared about this significant issue. Without education, it becomes tough to understand these key issues and how we as consumers are impacted. Check credible sources, such as USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) or the Waterways Council on a regular basis for updates on issues such as this one. The more educated we are, the better equipped we are to advocate and help solves important problems.
Illinois State University
Yes, just like consumers have choices in what they buy at the store, farmers choose what they want to plant in their fields. They spend a lot of time researching, reading, meeting and listening to industry experts to determine what’s best for their farms.
For more perspective on this issue, read Illinois farmer Paul Taylor’s perspective on how and why he chooses to grow both GM and non-GM crops on his farm.